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Cryoglobulinemia is the presence of abnormal proteins in the blood. These proteins thicken in cold temperatures.
Cryoglobulins are antibodies. It is not yet known why they become solid or gel-like at low temperatures. When this occurs, these antibodies can block blood vessels. This may lead to problems ranging from skin rashes to kidney failure.
Cryoglobulinemia is part of a group of diseases that cause damage and inflammation of the blood vessels throughout the body (vasculitis). There are three main types of the disorder. They are grouped based on the type of antibody that is produced:
Types II and III are also referred to as mixed cryoglobulinemia.
Type I cryoglobulinemia is most often related to cancer of the blood or immune systems.
Types II and III are most often found in people who have a chronic (long-lasting) inflammatory condition, such as an autoimmune disease or hepatitis C. Most people with mixed cryoglobulinemia have a chronic hepatitis C infection.
Other conditions that may be related to cryoglobulinemia include:
Symptoms will vary depending on the type of disorder you have and the organs that are involved. Symptoms may include:
The doctor will do a physical exam.You will be checked for signs of liver and spleen swelling.
Tests for cryoglobulinemia include:
Other tests may include:
Mild or moderate forms of cryoglobulinemia can often be treated by taking steps to deal with the underlying cause.
Severe cryoglobulinemia involves vital organs or large areas of skin. It is treated with corticosteroids and other medicines that calm the immune system.
Treatment may also involve plasmapheresis. In this procedure, blood plasma is taken out of blood circulation. It is replaced by fluid, protein, or donated plasma.
Most of the time cryoglobulinemia is not usually deadly. Outlook can be poor if the kidneys are affected.
Call your health care provider if:
There is no known prevention.
Rajkumar VS. Plasma Cell Disorders. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 193.
Stone JH. Immune Complex-Mediated Small Vessel Vasculitis. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, et al, eds. Kelley's Textbook of Rheumatology. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 91.