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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune system.
Pneumonia - cytomegalovirus; Cytomegalovirus pneumonia; Viral pneumonia
CMV pneumonia is caused by a member of a group of herpes-type viruses. Infection with CMV is very common. Most humans are exposed to CMV in their lifetime, but typically only individuals with weakened immune systems become ill from CMV infection
Serious CMV infections can occur in people with weakened immune systems from conditions such as:
In people who have had organ and bone marrow transplants, the risk of infection is greatest 5 - 13 weeks after the transplant.
In otherwise healthy people, CMV usually produces no symptoms, or it produces a temporary mononucleosis-type illness. Those with a weakened immune system can develop serious symptoms, however. Symptoms may include:
The doctor or nurse will perform a physical exam. In addition, the following tests may be done:
The objective of treatment is to stop the virus from copying in the body through the use of antiviral drugs. Some people with CMV pneumonia will need to get medication through a vein (intravenously). Some people might initially need oxygen therapy and breathing support with a ventilator to maintain oxygen until the infection is brought under control.
Antiviral medications stop the virus from copying itself, but do not destroy it. The CMV suppresses the immune system, and may increase your risk of other infections.
Low oxygen levels in the blood in people with CMV pneumonia often predicts death, especially in patients who need to be placed on a breathing machine.
Complications of CMV infection in people with AIDS include spread of disease to other parts of the body:
Complications of CMV pneumonia include:
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of CMV pneumonia.
The following procedures have been shown to help prevent CMV pneumonia in certain patients:
Preventing AIDS avoids certain other diseases, including CMV, that can occur in people who have a weakened immune system. Certain people with AIDS who have a CD4 count of less than 50 cells/microliter should consider taking preventive treatment for CMV.
Drew WL. Cytomegalovirus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds.Goldman's Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 384.