A diaper rash is a skin problem that develops in the area beneath an infant's diaper.
Dermatitis - diaper and Candida; Candida-associated diaper dermatitis; Diaper dermatitis
Causes, incidence, and risk factors
Diaper rashes are common in babies between 4 and 15 months old. They may be noticed more when babies begin to eat solid foods.
Diaper rashes caused by infection with a yeast or fungus called Candida are very common in children. Candida grows best in warm, moist places, such as under a diaper. A yeast-related diaper rash is more likely to occur in babies who:
Are not kept clean and dry
Are taking antibiotics, or whose mothers are taking antibiotics while breast feeding
Have more frequent stools
Other causes of diaper rashes include:
Acids in the stool (seen more often when the child has diarrhea)
Ammonia (produced when bacteria break down urine)
Diapers that are too tight or rub the skin
Reactions to soaps and other products used to clean cloth diapers
You may notice the following in your child's diaper area:
Bright red rash that gets bigger
Fiery red and scaly areas on the scrotum and penis in boys
Red or scaly areas on the labia and vagina in girls
Pimples, blisters, ulcers, large bumps, or pus-filled sores
Smaller red patches (called satellite lesions) that grow and blend in with the other patches
Older infants may scratch when the diaper is removed.
Diaper rashes usually do NOT spread beyond the edge of the diaper.
Signs and tests
Your doctor or nurse can often diagnose a yeast diaper rash by looking at your baby's skin. A KOH test can confirm if it is Candida.
The best treatment for a diaper rash is to keep the diaper area clean and dry. This will also help prevent new diaper rashes. Lay your baby on a towel without a diaper whenever possible. The more time the baby can be kept out of a diaper, the better.
Change your baby's diaper often, and as soon as possible after the baby urinates or passes stool
Use water and a soft cloth or cotton ball to gently clean the diaper area with every diaper change. Avoid rubbing or scrubbing the area. A squirt bottle of water may be used for sensitive areas.
Pat the area dry or allow to air-dry.
Put diapers on loosely. Diapers that are too tight don't allow enough air flow, and may rub and irritate the baby's waist or thighs.
Using highly absorbent diapers helps keep the skin dry and reduces the chance of getting an infection.
Always wash your hands after changing a diaper.
Ask your doctor or nurse which creams, ointments, or powders are best to use in the diaper area.
Ask if a diaper rash cream would be helpful. Zinc oxide or petroleum jelly-based products help keep moisture away from baby's skin when applied to completely clean, dry skin.
Do not use wipes that have alcohol or perfume. They may dry out or irritate the skin more.
Do not use corn starch on your baby's bottom. It can make a yeast diaper rash worse.
Do not use talc (talcum powder). It can get into your baby's lungs.
Certain skin creams and ointments will clear up infections caused by yeast. Nystatin, miconazole, clotrimazole, and ketaconazole are commonly used medicines for yeast diaper rashes. You can buy these without a prescription.
Sometimes a mild corticosteroid cream may be used. Talk to your doctor before trying this on your baby.
If you use cloth diapers:
Avoid plastic or rubber pants over the diaper. They do not allow enough air to pass through.
Do not use fabric softeners or dryer sheets. They may make the rash worse.
When washing cloth diapers, rinse 2 or 3 times to remove all soap if your child already has a rash or has had one before.
The rash usually responds well to treatment.
Calling your health care provider
Call your health care provider if:
The rash gets worse or does not go away in 2 - 3 days.
The rash spreads to the abdomen, back, arms, or face.
You notice pimples, blisters, ulcers, large bumps, or pus-filled sores.
Your baby also has a fever.
Your baby develops a rash during the first 6 weeks of life.
Tallia A, Scherger J, Dickey N, eds. Swanson's Family Medicine Review. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2008:chap 103.
Morelli JG. Cutaneous fungal infections. In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 658.
Neil K. Kaneshiro, MD, MHA, Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M. Health Solutions, Ebix, Inc.