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Eisenmenger syndrome is a condition that affects blood flow from the heart to the lungs in some babies who have structural problems of the heart.
Eisenmenger complex; Eisenmenger disease; Eisenmenger reaction; Eisenmenger physiology
Eisenmenger syndrome is caused by a defect in the heart. Most often, babies with this condition are born with a hole between the two pumping chambers -- the left and right ventricles -- of the heart (ventricular septal defect). The hole allows blood that has already picked up oxygen from the lungs to flow back into the lungs, instead of going out to the rest of the body.
Other heart defects that can lead to Eisenmenger syndrome include:
Over time, increased blood flow can damage the small blood vessels in the lungs. This causes high blood pressure in the lungs. As a result, the blood backs up and does not go to the lungs to pick up oxygen. Instead, the blood goes from the right side to the left side of the heart, allowing oxygen-poor blood to travel to the rest of the body.
Eisenmenger syndrome usually develops before a child reaches puberty. However, it also can develop in young adulthood.
The doctor will examine the child. During the exam, the doctor may find:
The doctor will diagnose Eisenmenger syndrome by looking at the patient's history of heart problems. Tests may include:
The number of cases of this condition in the United States has dropped because doctors are now able to diagnose and correct the defect sooner, before the irreversible damage to the small lung arteries occurs.
Older children with symptoms may have blood removed from the body (phlebotomy) to reduce the number of red blood cells, and then receive fluids to replace the lost blood (volume replacement).
Children may receive oxygen, although it is unclear whether it helps to prevent the disease from getting worse. Children with very severe symptoms may need a heart-lung transplant.
How well the infant or child does depends on whether another medical condition is present, and the age at which high blood pressure develops in the lungs. Patients with this condition can live 20 to 50 years.
Call your health care provider if your infant develops symptoms of Eisenmenger syndrome.
Bernstein D. Pulmonary vascular disease (Eisenmenger syndrome). In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier;2011:chap 427.2.